Interactive Summary of Findings (iSoF) table

An iSoF presents the key messages from a systematic review in a concise format:
  • The most important outcomes (both benefits and harms)
  • Size of these effects
  • Certainty of this evidence
The main objective of this tool is to help people find and understand the main messages from a systematic review.
Main features for users
  • Layers of information for drilling down from simple to complex
  • Choice of viewing evidence as text, numbers or graphics
  • Step-by-step visualizations that help explain results, including confidence intervals
  • Interactive explanation of terms
  • Interactive footnotes
  • Responsive design (will automatically adapt to small screens or device displays)
  • Available in different languages
  • Available for test accuracy questions
Main features for producers
  • Template flexibility; can accommodate data from different kinds of reviews, including those without meta-analysis)
  • Present different levels of baseline (control group) risk for each outcome
  • Control over default display (e.g. which outcomes, what information about each outcome, which baseline risk are visible)
  • Allowing producers to tailor their own template (for instance to rearrange the order of the columns, create a custom default presentation, or add organization logos)
  • Templates for table production in different languages
  • Automatic reminders to include information that is essential for understanding results (e.g. explanations about scales, about where estimates of baseline risk came from, and reasons for downgrading or upgrading the certainty of evidence)
Supporting materials:
Example completed iSoF
Tools to support the use of iSoFs


  • GRADE Guidelines: 16. GRADE evidence to decision frameworks for tests in clinical practice and public health. JCE 2016; 76: 89-98
  • Decision-Making about Healthcare Related Tests and Diagnostic Strategies: User Testing of GRADE Evidence Tables. PLoS One. 2015 Oct 16;10(10):e0134553